Fertigation là gì

Fertigation Effects on Productivity, & Soil và Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
Apurbố Bandyopadhyay AICRP.. on Palms, Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani, WB, India
, Dipak Kumar Ghosh(LKN) AICRPhường. on Palms, Department of Spices and Plantation Crops, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Kalyani, WB, India
, Benukar Biswas Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Mohanpur, IndiaCorrespondencebiswas.benukar
& Jagadish Timsimãng cầu Soils and Environment Group, Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Fertigation Effects on Productivity, and Soil and Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
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ABSTRACT

Fertigation has the potential lớn reduce extra chemical load by improving nutrient & water use efficiency of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), but studies demonstrating the fertilizer reduction through drip irrigation in comparison khổng lồ conventional ring basin method are rare in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of South Asia. A long-term field experiment was conducted during 2007–2013 in West Bengal, India, khổng lồ study the effect of fertigation on coconut var. DXT. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete bloông chồng design (RCBD) with six treatments (control – no fertilizers and water applied with drip irrigation; 25%, một nửa, 75% & 100% of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), each applied with drip irrigation; and 100% of the RDF and water applied with ring basin method of irrigation (i.e., conventional method)). Nuts yield was significantly higher for 75% of RDF (24.44 t ha−1 year−1) followed by 100% of RDF, each drip irrigation (23.79 t ha−1 year−1) compared to control (21.89 t ha−1 year−1). Copra yield was significantly higher for 75% of RDF (3.19 t ha−1) compared lớn 100% of RDF (3.12 t ha−1) and no fertilizer (1.87 t ha−1). Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) & potassium (K) contents of soil increased by 4.9%, 10.4% và 9.4%, respectively, with 75% of RDF applied through drip irrigation. Microbial population showed inverse relationship with amount of fertilizer application. The most water-use efficient fertigation treatment was 75% RDF (13.48 kg copra m−3) followed by 100% RDF (13.18 kg copra m−3) with drip irrigation as compared to lớn conventional way soil application of fertilizers through ring basin method of irrigation (4.23 kg copra m−3). Role of N on yield variability was most prominent by both available soil N status (R2 = 0.49**) & leaf N concentration (R2 = 0.51**). The study indicated that there is a great scope for reducing the N, Phường. & K fertilizers by up lớn 25% of the present RDFs for coconut when applied through drip irrigation compared to ring basin method of irrigation for its higher productivity and profitability through efficient use of nutrients và water in the Eastern IGP of South Asia.


Introduction

Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is grown in different farming systems & soils in almost all countries of South Asia, & most notably in the coastal areas (Coconut Development Board, 2015). It is an important commercial plantation crop in India & plays an important role in the Indian economy by contributing around $105 million per year khổng lồ the national GDPhường (Jayakumar et al., 2015). In India, it was grown in approximately 2.08 million ha with production of 2.39 million nuts in 2016–2017. In West Bengal alone, which is in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) of South Asia, the area under coconut was 0.30 million ha with the production of 3.75 million nuts in the same year (Coconut Development Board, 2018). Due khổng lồ high cost of production và low profit, coconut cultivations are carried out with negligence và as a result coconut farming is often considered to lớn be a non-profitable enterprise in India.

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To make the coconut cultivation profitable, improved management practices are needed to lớn increase its yield. Water & nutrients are the main inputs contributing khổng lồ higher productivity of coconut (Jayakumar et al., 2017). Insufficient water is the most limiting factor in post monsoon season (December–May) in coconut palm growing regions of South Asia due khổng lồ high evaporative demand in those months (Mahesha et al., 1990). Presently, scarđô thị of water, high cost of labor and energy, & inappropriate fertilizer & irrigation application methods are deterrents in adopting traditional irrigation methods for coconut. Among the various irrigation systems, drip irrigation is gaining importance in South Asia as it can maintain soil moisture near field capathành phố and appropriate air balance in the root zone of coconut throughout the dry season (Carr, 2011). In other words, drip system can be used to apply water and water-soluble fertilizers or chemicals in precise amount directly lớn the root zone (e.g., fertigation) as & when required to lớn match the plant needs (Jayakumar et al., 2014,2015).

In fertigation method, nutrient use efficiency could be as high as 90% compared lớn only 40–60% in conventional methods (Basavaraju et al., 2014). In fertigation method, the amount of nutrients lost through leaching can be as low as 10%, whereas it can be >1/2 in the traditional system (Solaimalai et al., 2005). The advantage of fertigation method over conventional method of fertilizer application was also emphasized by several other works (Mmolawa and Or, 2000;Mohammad, 2004a,2004b;Shigure et al., 1999). However, there is very meager information on fertigation effects on productivity, and soil and plant nutrition of coconut in the Eastern IGP.. of South Asia, or largely in India. Keeping this in view, the present investigation was carried out lớn determine the effect of different fertigation levels on yield, và soil và plant nutrient contents of coconut with a goal of improving the coconut productivity in the IGPhường of South Asia.

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Experimental site, weather and year

The experiment was conducted in a 27-year-old well-established coconut palm planted during 1980–1981 & spaced at 7.5 × 7.5 m in squared pattern at the Horticultural Research Station (under All India Coordinated Research Project on Palms – AICRPP) of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidyalaya (BCKV), Mondouri, India, from 2007–2008 to 2012–2013. The experimental site is characterized by the subtropical humid climate, situated at 23° 30ʹ 13″ N lat. và 89° 20ʹ 32″ E long. with an average altitude of 9.75 meters above sea màn chơi. Average annual rainfall during the experimental period was 1582 mm ranging from 995 milimet in 2010 khổng lồ 2808 mm in 2011. Mean monthly minimum và maximum temperature over the experimental period was 22°C and 32°C, respectively. Mean monthly minimum & maximum relative sầu humidity over the period was 60% & 93%, respectively (Table 1). The soil of the experimental site is well drained clay loam with pH 6.6. The experiment was laid out in a RCBD with six treatments replicated four times: T1 – Control (no fertilizers) và water with drip irrigation; T2 – 25% of the recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) applied with drip irrigation; T3 – một nửa of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; T4 – 75% of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; T5 – 100% of the RDF applied with drip irrigation; và T6 – 100% of the RDF applied with ring basin method of irrigation (i.e., conventional method).
Fertigation Effects on Productivity, & Soil and Plant Nutrition of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Eastern Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia
Apurcha Bandyopadhyay, Dipak Kumar Ghosh(LKN), Benukar Biswas, Maheswarappage authority Halli Parameswarappa và Jagadish Timsina

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